RWANDA
byanditswe na Charles B. Kabonero


Ikimenyane no kwikanyiza mu Rwanda birakabije



Hari umiryango y'abategetsi, iyo abacuruzi n'utuzu tw'abasangira umugati w'igihugu

Nibyo koko mu Rwanda  hari intambwÚ imaze guterwa nyuma y'intambara na jenoside y'abatutsi byo mu 1994.
Igihugu cyari cyashegeshwe n'intambaria, kikanatakÓza abantu basaga miliyoni muri jenoside yibasiye ubwoko bwabatutsi cyagerageje kwiyubaka bushya, abantu batuzwa bashya, ibikorwa remezo byubakwa bushya 'hashyirwaho n'inzeg,o zafasha ma gutunganya imirimo ikenewe kugira ngo igihugu gitere intambwe kţva ikuzimu.

Ubu hari ibyo u  Rwandarushimirwa nubwo intambwe ikiri ndende. Imibereho y'abaturage nayo iracyari inibi.
Nyamara ariko ¤kizere cyakabaye gihari uretse ibibazo bindi bijyanye n`imiyoborere bigenda byigaragaza bigatuma icyizere kigabanuka ndetse bigatuma n'umubare w'abishisha ubutegetsi buriho wiyongera. Bimwe muri ibyo bibazo ni ikimenyane mu itangwa ry'imirimo, amasoko n'ibindi cyane cyane ko ishyaka riri ku buteget'si, FPR, ariryo ritanga byose. Hari kandi kwikanyiza haba mu bucuruzi n'ibindi usanga bigenda biharirwa udutsiko tw'abantu bake bafite icyo bahuriyeho kandi b'abatoni ibukuru.

Ikimenyane

Ijambo ikimenyane ni ijambo rizwi kandi rikoreshwa cyane muri sosiyete yo mu Rwanda bishingiye kw'ijambo ikimenyane bishingiye ku buryo biriho cyane mu Rwanda.
Nta munyarwanda utazi ko, kubona akazi keza muri iki gihugu waba wize, ufite uburambe cyangwa utabifite bigomba kabamo ikimenyane. Ari m¨ mirimo, no mu bindi bikorwa nk'itangwa ry'inguzanyo mu mabanki, ikimenyane nicyo gisumba ibindi biba bisabwa. Ikimenyane no kwikanyiza biriho mu Rwanda  ubu nibyo ntandaro y'ubusumbane hagati y'abakire n'abakene bukabije mu Rwanda nkuko bitangazwa mu maraporo y'ibţgo bya leta.

Imiryango y'abategetsi

Muri leta ya Kagame, hari imiryango mike dufite lisite nini y'abantu (abavandimwe) bafite imyanya ikomeye mu gihugu kandi bakomeza kwiyongera buri mwaka. Urugero rumwe umuntu yagaragaza ni umuryango umuntu yavuga ko uyobowe n'uwitwa John Bosco Rusagara, we ubwe ni umucuruzi ufashwe neza cyane mu gihugu, akaba ari umwe mu bafite imigabane muri BCDI, akagira na sosiyete yitwa INTRASPEED ikora akazi k'ubwikorezi n'ibindi.
Uyu, umufasha we ConsolÚe Rusagara ni Visi Guverineri wa Banki nkuru y'igihugu (BNR), mushiki we niwe ambasaderi. w'u Rwanda mu Busuwisi, musaza w'umugore we nawe afite imigabane muri BCDI akaba no mu nama y'ubutegetsi, Alfred Mutebwa. Uyu Mutebwa ni n'umuyobozi mukuru muri MINAGRI. Undi Musaza wa ConsolÚe Rusagara, umufasha we niwe mugenzuzi mukuru w'imari ya leta (Auditor General), umugabo nawe akaba ayobora umushinga wa leta ukorera muri MINAGRI. Abo ni bake mu bagize uwo muryango bari mu butegetsi kuko urutonde rwabo ari rurerure.

Indi miryango yavugwa, irimo umuryango urimo Komiseri mukuru w'ikigo gishinzwe kwinjiza imisoro n'amahoro (RRA), Baine Mary, umufasha wa Col. Tom Byabagamba ukuriye ingabo zirinda Perezida (Republican Guard). Col. Byabagamba kandi, ni musaza wa Rosemary Museminari, umunyamabanga wa leta muri Minisiteri y'ububanyi n'amahanga. . Urutonde aho naho ni rurerure. Uretse abo, hari indi miryango nk'umuryango
wa Major Rwakabi Kacyira, umufasha we, Aisa Kirabo Kacyţra akaba ariwe muyobozi w'Umujyi wa Kigali, umuryango wa Lt. Gen. Charles Kayonga, umufasha we Caroline Kayonga ubuniwe munyamabanga uhoraho wa minisiteri y'ubuzima. Abandi baximo Major Anaclet Kalibata uyobora ikige gishinzwe abinjira n'abasohoka (migration) nawe umufasha we akaba ariwe umunyamabanga mukuru wa MINAGRI.

Hari kandi umuryango wa Mutsindashyaka Tewonesiti uyobora intara y'Iburasirazuba, umufasha we akaba ari Mukantaganzwa Domitila,
umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w'inkiko Gacaca ndetse na Solina Nyirahabimana, Minisitiri muri Perezidansi, umufasha we akaba ari
Twahirwa Manasseh uyobora Privatisation.

Ibi birakorwa kandi uko igihe kigenda mu nzego z'igihugu zose birarushaho kugenda byigaragaza. Ejo bundi mu matora y'inzego z'ubuyobozi, nibwo haje abandi nka Mudenge Esperance umufasha wa General James Kabarebe, umugaba mukuru w'Ingabo z'u Rwanda watowe (watoreshejwe) nk'umujyanama w'Umujyi wa Kigali Musaza w'uyumufasha w'umugaba w'Ingabo Lt. Col. Mudenge uretse iryo peti rihanitse afite, ni nawe Perezida w'Inama y'ubutegetsi ya RURA.

Umuryango wa Paul Kagame nawo ntiwasigaye inyuma. Uretse Perezida Kagame, umuvandimwe we Ben Rugangazi wahoze ayobora ya sosiyete y'ubucuruzi ya FPR, Tristar ubu ni ambasaderi w'u Rwanda mu Bushinwa, hanyuma muramu wa Kagame, Dr Innocent Gakwaya akaba ariwe uyobora kimwe mu bigo bifite amafaranga menshi, RAMA.

Iyo miryango umuntu yayita ź imiryango y'abategetsi ╗ kandi uko bahabwa iyo mirimo niko baha amahirwe abandi bari mu miryango yabo n'ababakomokaho, amahirwe yo kwiga neza, bigira heza, bizabafasha, kubasimbura muri iyo myanya barimo ubu. Benshi muri abo usanga abana
babo bigira mu mahanga kuko bafite uburyo cyangwa bakigira mu mashuri akomeye hano mu gihugu rimwe na rimwe no ku mafaranga aba yanyerejwe muri ibyo bigo bakoramo.

Itohoza rik ozwe neza riragaragaza ko u Rwanda ku butegetsi bwa FPR mu myaka cuni n'itatu, mu kimenyane n'ubwikanyize ruri ku rugero rumwe. n'ibihungu bimaze imyaka myinshi biyobowe n'ishyaka rimwe.

Kwigwizaho umutungo n'ubucuruzi

Kwiharira imyanya ubwabyo bifite aho bihurira no kwikanyizaho umutungo ariko icyo umuntu yakongeraho ni uburyo ariyo ntandaro, y'amasoko akunze kuvugwa mu maraporo anyura inyuma y'ikigo gishinzwe gutanga amasoko (NTB). Bamwe mu baba bamaze kubaka udutsiko cyangwa se utuzu duhamye muri leta hari ubwo babikoresha nk'iturufu yo kwiha amasoko cyangwa se bagakora amasosiyete yanditse ku babakomokaho cyangwa se abavandimwe babo akajya ahabwa amasoko, umutungo w'igihugu ugakomeza kuzenguruka muri iyo miryango mike. Uretse ibyo ariko, abacuruzi bamwe usanga batoneshejwe n'ubutegetsi ku buryo bugaragara bibafasha kwikanyiza mu bucuruzi n'ibindi. Mu nomero yacu twavuze ku munyemari Tribert Rujugiro, kugeza ubu wagiriwe icyizere cyo kuyobora icyo umuntu yakwita forumu y'abacuruzi, Rwanda Investment Group;
(RIG), akaba ari perezida w'inama y'ubutegetsi y'ikigo cy'igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere ishoramari n'ubucuruzi bwo gutwara ibicuruzwa hanze (RIEPA), hanyuma umwe mu bakuriye ubucuruzi bwe, Robert Bayigamba akaba ariwe Perezida w'ishyirahamwe ry'abikorera ku giti cyabo (FRSP).

Hano uretse kuba RIG ubwayo igaragara nk'inzira yo kugira ubucuruzi nka politiki aho abanyapolitiki bose usanga bashyirwa hamwe muri forumu batekererezamo, bagatekereza kimwe (aka bya bindi ngo Kiliziya ni imwe, gatolika, ntagatifu ikomoka ku ntumwa), Rujugiro usanga muri ubwo buryo ahabwa amahirwe aruta ay'abandi bacuruzi kuko n'ubwo nawe ari umucuruzi , agenzura abandi bacuruzi n'imishinga yabo biciye muri RIEPA, RIG na FRSP byose biri mu maboko ye.
Kwikanyiza aho kurumvikana neza. RIG kandi yaje isanga indi sosiyete y'ikigugu ya FPR, Tristar yo yonyine isa nk'ifite mu maboko yayo ubukungu bw'igihugu kuko ikora ubucuruzi bwose bukomeye burimo gutanga serivisi nko muri za banki, ubwubatsi, inganda n'ibindi byinshi. Muri serivisi, Tristar ifite imigabane muri za banki nka BCDI, mu nganda ifite uruganda rukora amazi (Inyange), naho mu bwabatsi hari NPD COTRAC0. Amwe mu masosiyete y'ubucuruzi ya Tristar nayo amaze kubyara ayayo ku buryo usanga mu bucuruzi, Tristar ifite abuzukuru n'abuzukuruza mu rwego rw'amasosiyete. Urutonde rw'ibigo bya Tristar ntawarurondora.

Abacuruzi baremwa

Hagati aho mu gushimangira iyo mikorere, mu Rwanda hagaragara abandi bacuruzi bakozwe (baremwe) na FPR ikabaha ibigo bikomeye by'ubucuruzi bihabwa amasoko akomeye ubu bakaba aribo banyemari bakomeye mu gihugu. Muri abo harimo abantu nka Sekoko Hatari ufite Akagera, Agro Coffee n'ibindi. Urutonde rwa bene abo narwo ni rurerure.

Hari n'ibigo utamenya niba ari ibya leta, FPR cyangwa abantu ku giti cyabo. Ibyo birimo ikigo Prime.Holdings, bemeza ko ari icya 1eta, ariko rimwe ukumva ngo leta yakigurije amafaranga, ubundi kikaba cyagurije leta. . Prime Holdings niyo ifatwa nka nyiri icyahoze ari Intercontinental Hotel yagurishijwe Serena Hotel, Jari Club, n'icyahoze ari Kivu Sun. Ifite n'inzu mberabyombi yubatswe izwi nka sale y'ibiro bya Minisitiri w'Intebe yakuzura igahinduka iya Prime Holdings. Amakuru ikinyamakuru Umuseso gikesha umwe mu bayobozi bakuru b'igihugu yemeza ko mu kubaka iyo nzu harimo n'inkunga zahawe u Rwanda, nyamara uyu munsi, Musoni iyo avuze ko Prime Holdings iyifite ari iya leta, hari abumirwa kuko nta bubasha leta iyifiteho ku buryo buzwi.

Ingaruka

Ihomba ry'ibigo

Ingaruka z'imikorere yo kwikanyiza n'ikimeyane byo mu Rwanda zatangiye kwigaragaza. Ihomba ry'amÓbanki hÓfimo na BCDI iri mu marembera rishingiye ahanini kuri ibyo bintu bibiri; kuba FPR yarinjiye mu bucuruzi byahaye amahirwe abanyapoliti n'abacuruzi bumva ko ari abatoni kwigwizaho umutungo zitangwa hashingiwe ku kimenyane cy'icyo bari cyo Ibyo ni nako bimeze ku bindi bigo bya Leta bigurishwa bimaze guhomba. Utuzu
tw'abavandimwe n'ikimenyme cy'abanyabubasha usanga muri ubwo bucuruzi n'imirimo ari byo shingiro ry'ibibazo by'urudaca birundura ibigo bya Leta, ibigo by'imali birimo abanyabubasha n'abanya politiki; amafaranga y'abaturage basanzwe akahashirira. Aha umuntu ntiyabura kuvuga ihomba rya Artel.

Kutishimira ubutegetsi

Mu ruzinduko Perezida Kagame aherutsemo mu ntara y'Iburasirazuba, abaturage ntibatinye kumutangariza uburyo batishimye ibikingi bitagira uko bingana bamwe mu bategetsi bÓkomeye bigaruriye aho mu mu Mutara bigatuma n'abandi bitwa ko ari abayobozi bigwizaho amasambu bikagera aho ikibazo cy'ama ambu kirenga urugero ubu Kagame akaba avuga ko leta igiye kugihagundcira bisa nk'aho amazi yarenze inkombe. Ibyo yabivuze
nyuma yo kugaruka ku kibazo cy'ishyamba rya Gishwati naryo ryibasiwe n'abayobozi, leta irebera. Kugeza ubu nta gihamya cy'uko Kagame icyo kibazo azagikemura uko abitekereza kuko ayo masambu ari mu maboko y'abanyabubasha bahitamo kumuhigira imihigo bamwereka uko bazayakoresha neza aho kuyamburwa.

Gutonesha

Kwigwizaho umutungo, ubucuruzi ndetse n'imirimo byose ni ishingiro ryo gutonesha mu gutanga amaoko, imyanya yo hasi, amahirwe, umugati w'igihugu n'ibindi byose. Inganuka zo gutonesha nazo zirumvikana. Mu minsi ishize itangazamakuru ryo kw'isi hose ryavugaga ikibazo cya Perezida wa banki y'isi (World Bank) wahaye akazi incuti ye akamuhemba akayabo k'amadolari bikagera aho asabwa kwegura kuri uwo mwanya ukomeye kw'isi. Mu Rwanda ibibazo nk'ibyo bigiye gukurikiranwa abari mu nzego z'ubutegetsi ubungubu hasigaramo mbarwa.

Guhuma ubutegetsi

Mu rwego rwa politiki, ibijyane no kwikanyiza bituma ubutegetsi cyane cyane Perezida uba waratowe n'abaturage atabona neza ibibazo abaturage benshi bafite kuko igipimo areberaho cyane ari iyo miryango mike ikize yihariye imitungo. Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda, ntawabura kuvuga ko abantu bake bari mu byiciro byavuzwe bashobora guhuma ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bukibeshya ko abaturage babayeho neza kuko abagize iyo miryango bose baba bafite amazu arenze atatu mu turere twiza twa Kigali mu gihe hakiri abacitse kw'icumu batarabona amacumbi ndetse n'abandi baturage babayeho nabi.